Software. Its Definition, Evolution and Possible Future.
|Applet['aplɪt]; [æ̱plɪt]||Аплет- (прикладная программа, запускаемая при каждом обращении к веб-странице, в исходный текст которой она встроена) 2) апплет (переносимая программа на Java в форме байт-кода, распространяемая через веб-страницы);|
|Applications software||Прикладное программное обеспечение|
|Desktop publishing system||Настольная редакционно-издательская система|
|Graphical interface||Графический интерфейс|
|Network software||Сетевое программное обеспечение|
|Paint software||Программа раскраски|
|Print manager||Блок управления печатью|
|Resident software||Резидентная программа|
|Software||Программное изделие, Программное обеспечение, Программные средства|
|Software documentation||Программная документация|
|Software engineer||Системный инженер|
|Software interrupt||Прерывание прикладной программы Vocabulary Notes|
|Software piracy||Незаконное копирование программных средств|
|Software tools||Инструментальные программные средства|
|Spelling checker||Блок орфографического контроля|
|System software||Системное программное обеспечение|
|Text editor||Текстовый редактор|
|To create software||Создавать программное обеспечение|
|To devise software||Разрабатывать программное обеспечение|
|To extend software||Расширять программное обеспечение|
|To meet the needs||Удовлетворять нужды|
|To provide support||Обеспечивать поддержку|
|Word processing||Подготовка текстов|
Ex. I. Read the definitions of some terms and give their Russian equivalents.
Any program or group of programs which instructs the hardware on how it should perform, including operating systems, word processors and applications programs Vocabulary Notes.
NOTE: no plural for software; for the plural say pieces of software
Utility application program; a computer program which is contained within a page on the World Wide Web, and which transfers itself to your computer and runs automatically while you are looking at that Web page.
Hypertext document that is also capable of displaying images and sounds.
System of organizing information; certain words in a document link to other documents and display the text when the word is selected.
Desktop publishing- the production of printed matter by means of a printer linked to a desktop computer, with special Vocabulary Notes software. The system enables reports, advertising matter, etc., to be produced cheaply with a layout and print quality similar to that of typeset books...>
text editor - system or program that allows a user to edit text
Ex. II. A. Match the terms in the left column with their definitions in the right column.
|1) applications software||a) illegal copy of a software package|
|2) bundled software||b) useful routines that can be used by any program|
|3) common software||c) programs which direct the basic functions, input-output control, etc., of a computer|
|4) network software||d) programs which are used by the user to perform a Vocabulary Notes certain task|
|5) pirate software||e) programs which are easy for a non-expert to use and interact with|
|6) system software||f) software which is used to establish the link between a users’ program and a network|
|7) user- friendly software||g) program that is started from the command line, then loads itself into memory, ready to be activated by an action, and passes control back to the command line|
|8) resident software||h) software which is included in the price of the system|
B. Choose one of the terms and give its explanation.
Ex. III.. Complete the following text using Vocabulary Notes the words and phrases from the box.
Once upon a time the term _1__ described iron fittings, tools, and other things created by the village blacksmith. Military jargon then expanded the definition to include machines and, still later, __2___. In 1962, someone used this precedent to coin a new term to describe __3___, procedures, and related documentation associated with computers – software. No doubt the definition of software will change as much as hardware in the coming years, but in both cases many underlying concepts will probably ___4 the same. Computer users know that software turns the computer into _5___ .
|a) the programs b Vocabulary Notes) hardware c) remain d) the user’s tool e) computer equipment|
Ex. IV. Complete the text using the words and phrases from the box.
Welcome to the Microsoft Windows operating system, ___1___ that makes your computer easier and more fun __2___ . Windows is easy _3___ because its _4____ is consistent from one __5___ to the next. When you have learned to use one application with Windows, such as _6__ , you have learned _7____ for using any other application with Windows. You can __8___ your existing MS-DOS-based __9__ and share information between them. This software includes _10___ , __11__ and others.
A) to use b) applications c) the essentials d Vocabulary Notes) graphical interface e) to learn
f) file manager g) application h) run i) print manager j) software k)write
Ex.V. Make up the word- combinations and use them in sentences of your own.
Ex. IV. Read the article Just the FAQs, ma’am and match the boxes with the titles. Use a dictionary when necessary.
| || || || || |
a) different types of software;
b) pattern-matching type;
c) existing chatterbot software;
d) functioning procedure;
e) case-reasoning type.
Just the FAQs, ma’am
Getting a chatterbot to answer people’s questions, in a typed Vocabulary Notes conversation, has a number of advantages. Once the right questions and responses have been programmed into the system, it is easy to add more capacity as the volume of inquiries increases. And bots don’t get tired, so they can answer queries around the clock.
Existing chatterbot software is more than qualified for such menial work. Most bots are limited to chatting about a handful of well-defined topics anyway, so rejigging them to talk about printer problems (instead of old “Star Trek” episodes, say, or Bill Clinton) is a doddle. And the question of whether a particular Vocabulary Notes bot can pass the Turing test is, in this context, irrelevant- since customers are well aware that they are not dealing with a human being in the first place.
Admittedly, bots cannot answer every question satisfactorily. But bot proponents point out that most technical-support staff spend much of their time dealing with the same small set of easily answered inquiries (known in the jargon as FAQs, or frequently asked questions). According to Dean Norman of Neuromedia, a software company based in San Francisco, 70-80 % of inquiries are FAQs. A suitably configured chatterbot system can be programmed to Vocabulary Notes handle most of these, passing customers on to human support staff only when it encounters a problem that it cannot solve. Neuromedia claims that installing a bot on a website can reduce the volume of e-mail queries by as much as 80 %.
Neuromedia’s chatterbot system, called NeuroServer, works by pattern-matching. It is programmed with a set of answers, along with patterns for the questions that trigger each one. Input from a user is checked against these patterns to decide which answer is most appropriate in each case. The system also remembers a certain amount of context, so that if Vocabulary Notes the user asks "do you know John Smith?", followed by "what is his telephone number?", the bot can respond appropriately. Transcripts of all conversations are stored, and can be searched by human operators to check that the bot is giving the right answers. They can also be used to identify cases where the bot was unable to provide the information required, so that it can be modified to do so in the future.
People who visit Neuromedia’s website (www.neuromedia.com) can chat with its resident bot, Shallow Red, whose name is a sarcastic reference to IBM’s Vocabulary Notes chess-playing computer, Deep Blue. Shallow Red can answer questions about himself and his parent company, and provide names, maps and telephone numbers. Other companies are using Neuromedia’s software to create their own bots. Charles Schwab, an American on-line stockbroker, has developed a prototype bot called Virtual Chuck to dispense investment advice. And Oracle, a software company, and J. P. Morgan, a bank, are testing bots internally as a possible way of delivering computer support.
Another approach is being taken by Inference, a company based in Novato, California. It has entered the chatterbot field by extending Vocabulary Notes the software it sells to help companies run their cell centers. Instead of pattern-matching, Inference’s bot uses a system called case-based reasoning.
Normally, a human support-worker at a call center leads a caller through a series of questions, comparing the answers with a database of known solutions. The probability of each possible solution being the correct one is recalculated after a question is answered. Eventually, enough information is available for the system to suggest a course of action. This technology has been extended to the web by creating a bot to ask questions, collect the answers, interrogate Vocabulary Notes the database, and come up with the solution.
LucasARTS, a games company based in San Rafael, California, has used Inference’s software for a technical-support service on its website (www.lucasarts.com\support\). Visitors are greeted by Yoda, a character from the "Star Wars" films, who asks them to describe their problems, and diagnoses what is wrong by asking further questions. According to LucasArts, Yoda now handles 500-1,000 enquiries a day, and does the work of 33 human "support representatives". The fact that Yoda is available at night and over weekends is particularly important to players of computer Vocabulary Notes games.
In both of these cases, the bot needs to be able to handle sudden changes in the direction of the conversation, and then revert to the previous task. The goal-stack works like a pile of paper. A new goal is placed on top. When it has been achieved, it is removed, revealing the previous goal, to which the bot returns. Visitors to the company’s website (www.bigscience.com) can chart Vocabulary Notes with Andrette, a bot with a human face who looks pained when she fails to understand.
No doubt, there is room in the market for several different types of chatterbot. Pattern-matching may prove most useful for dispensing information, while case-based reasoning is better suited to goal-driven inquiries. Either way, it is likely that demand for software to deliver electronic customer-service will increase. Gartner Group, an American technology consultancy, suggests that by 2001,
25 % of customer contacts and inquiries to large American companies will be made on the Internet. Chatterbots might not be able to pass the Vocabulary Notes Turing test, but talking to them could still beat being kept on hold by a human.
Ex. V. Match the boxes and the titles given above. Discuss your variants.
Ex. VI. Describe:
1) the way the bots function;
2) the advantages of using the bots;
3) the bots which can pass the Turing Test and explain the reasons;
4) the bots which cannot pass the Turing test and explain the reasons;
5) the type of bots you would prefer to use and explain the reasons.
Ex. VII. Explain the meaning of the following statements from the article.
1. Admittedly, bots cannot answer every question satisfactorily.
2. The Vocabulary Notes goal-stack works like a pile of paper.
3. Pattern matching may prove most useful for dispensing information, while case-based reasoning is better suited to goal-driven inquiries.
4. Chatterbots might not be able to pass the Turing test, but talking to them could still beat being kept on hold by a human.
Ex. VIII. Discuss in pairs:
1. The problems software engineers have when they devise the bots.
2. The needs most clients have when they use different software.
Ex. IX. Speak about different types of software. Give their strong and weak points.
Ex. I. Discuss the Vocabulary Notes following points:
1. For programmers creating software is a way of getting a bit of recognition and it is a challenge.
2. IT has had and will continue to have profound effects on jobs especially through the knowledge-worker channel.
3. Computing is an agent of revolution in whole organizations. Computers are starting to be used as substitutes for operators.
Ex. II. Look through the following statements and choose the ones you agree with. Explain your reasons.
1. In general, I think users are getting what they want – there are a lot of creative things being done with paint software, word processing, DTP (desktop Vocabulary Notes publishing) systems, and the like. Do users want more? Of course! Users will always want more. The computer is an incredibly powerful tool, and any software that makes it easier, faster, more creative, or more cost – effective will inevitably be in demand. But I’m generally optimistic about the way things are going at the moment. I think most of the major software manufacturers are able to read the market quite well.
2. I think that applications are getting too big, and that they’re trying to do too much. Yes, they’re versatile and powerful, but they’re also Vocabulary Notes often overwhelming. I think what we need are simple little programs that are easy to understand and use, and that work together to accomplish more complex tasks.
3. In my opinion, we need specialized software. Simple little programs just ignore the complex needs of many of today’s software users.
4. I think specialized software is usually so specific that it should be written in-house for businesses. Developers should add features that the customer needs, not what they think customers want. Some effort should be made to get feedback from the users before making an upgrade so that the proper features Vocabulary Notes are added.
Ex. III. Work in pairs
Share your opinion on the following point:
New computer software makes it hard to say which skills the economy is going to need. The new business opportunities have been and are being brought into life. Service industry is changing very fast.